Understanding The Bible
Clarence E. Mason's "ESCHATOLOGY 2"


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Dr. Clarence E. Mason, Jr.
Philadelphia College of Bible

Edited by Dr. Clarence E. Mason, Jr.

THE BIBLICAL COVENANTS (See Scofield Ref. Bible, p. 1297) (New Scofield, pp. 1317-18)

    Before naming and expositing the Biblical Covenants it is necessary to give information about a humanly devised scheme of covenants produced by certain theologians beginning about 100 years after the Reformation. Their viewpoint has had far-reaching effect upon the Church and has obscured the Scriptural teaching about God's covenants with men. The term Covenant Theology or the Theological Covenants has been applied to this humanly concocted covenant theory.
      This theory of the covenants involves the concept of three covenants which are said to embrace God's redemptive purpose for mankind. The logical order for these covenants (which is the reverse of their chronological development) is as follows:
      1. The Covenant of Redemption was said to have been made before creation between the Persons of the Godhead, by means of which the divine arrangements for salvation were made. The Father was to offer the Son, the Son was to give Himself as a sacrifice for sin, and the Holy Spirit was to apply the benefits of the death of the Son.
      2. The Covenant of Works was said to have been made by God with Adam in the Garden of Eden prior to the Fall, promising eternal life for obedience and warning that death would follow disobedience.
      3. The Covenant of Grace was said to have been made by God with Christ (or the elect in Him) after the Fall, and under which eternal life is freely offered to sinners on the faith principle.

        It should be mentioned that this theory makes no distinction between Jew, Gentile, and the Church in the program of God, but rather maintains that everyone saved from the time of Adam until the consummation belongs to one great covenanted community known variously as Israel (the nation) or the church (spiritual Israel).
      It should be stressed that this theory of the covenants is a post-Reformation development. None of the reformers knew anything about this theory, though things which they wrote were later made to fit in with this scheme of the covenants. Actually the theory did not become a part of Reformed Theology until the middle of the 17th century.

      After Calvin's death in 1564, Holland gradually became the center of Calvinistic theological activity (replacing Switzerland) and an important product of that activity was the development of the covenant theory. Though some of the ideas related to the covenant theory are found in the writings of earlier German theologians, credit must be given to the Dutch theologians Johannes Cocceius (1602-1669) and Herman Witsius (1636-1708) for giving the theory precise and comprehensive form. The development of the theory in Holland was actually an outgrowth of the Arminian controversy (1603-1619). Theological tension was high in Holland following the Synod of Dort (1619) and much sentiment had been aroused against a prevalent extreme viewpoint on the doctrine of the decrees and particularly against the teaching of double predestination (the decrees of election and reprobation). It was at this time that Cocceius advanced his theory concerning the Covenant of Grace and the Covenant of Works, in which he soft-pedaled the doctrine of predestination, basing man's redemption rather on a covenant instituted after the fall of man. This teaching, of course, was rejected by the Reformed Church, but it threatened a division in the church comparable to that caused by the Arminian revolt. The Reformed Church's opposition to the theory continued until Witsius introduced his idea of a third covenant (later known as the Covenant of Redemption) which concerned God's saving purpose before the foundation of the earth. The Reformed theologians were quick to see the possibility of reconciling the doctrine of the eternal decrees with this new idea set forth by Witsius. Therefore, the Reformed Church did an about face and embraced the theory of the covenants. Consequently, Reformed Theology today also bears the designation Covenant Theology.

      It is well to keep in mind that the covenant theory had three definite stages of development:
      1. The Covenant of Grace
        Reference was made in the latter part of the 16th century by certain German professors to a Covenant of Grace. These instances were isolated accounts and treat the covenant in a very general way and consider it to have begun with the fall of man.
        1. Hyperius in Marburg, seems to have been the first to make mention of this covenant; this was in 1561 in his work Topica Theologica.
        2. Olevianus, professor at Heidelberg, in 1570, published his work The Covenant of Grace.
        3. Eglinus, professor at Marburg, in 1600, published a treatise on this covenant and definitely made it refer to all men (and not to the elect alone, or to Christ for the elect, as others now do).
        4. Then, in Holland, Cocceius, in the first half of the 17th century, fully developed his idea on the Covenant of Grace.
        5. Writers in England and Scotland also set forth their teaching on the subject, but somewhat later than the period in which the German teachers wrote.
      2. The Covenant of Works
        1. Rollock in Scotland had written on a Covenant of Works as early as 1596.
        2. Ames and Ball in the early 17th century wrote concerning a Covenant of Works. However, Ball's writings were not published until 1645, while the Westminster Assembly was in session.
        3. In 1646, the Westminster Assembly adopted the theory of the covenants, incorporating it in the Westminster Confession of Faith.
        4. Cocceius was the most significant writer on the Covenant of Works and the Covenant of Grace, and he published an important book on the subject in 1648. Note that up until this time only two covenants were mentioned in the theory of the covenants.
      3. The Covenant of Redemption
        The third phase in the development of the-covenant theory had its appearance in the Netherlands in the writings of Witsius in 1685. Up till that time the covenants considered God's relations within man from the time of Adam's creation till the end of man's history on earth. Witsius, a disciple of Cocceius, sought a way of reconciling Cocceian views with those of the orthodox Reformed groups. He came under the condemnation of the Cocceians because his idea of a Covenant of Redemption before the foundation of the earth was seized upon by the orthodox groups to parallel the covenant theory with the doctrine of election. Thus, the adoption of the theory of the three covenants by the orthodox groups stole the thunder from their opponents, the Cocceians.
      1. The principle of interpretation known as spiritualization (the substitution of identity) undergirds the whole system.
      2. The system emphasizes extra-Biblical covenants at the expense of the literal-historical-grammatical import of the Biblical covenants. Note the following characteristics relative to a Biblical covenant:
        1. The Bible clearly identifies God's covenant people (Romans  9:4).
        2. The institution of the Bible covenants is clearly indicated in Scripture.
        3. The parties to the Bible covenants are specified in Scripture.
        4. The terms of the Bible covenants are clearly given in Scripture.

          It is noteworthy that when a covenant is mentioned in the N.T., it is possible to identify that covenant positively on the basis of the facts above. When God makes covenants with His people. He does not keep them in the dark concerning the nature and content of the covenants. Thus it is seen that the covenants of Covenant Theology fail to meet the requirements of a Biblical Covenant, and in the classic remark of the great Dr. Park of Boston, they are seen to be of human devising, having been "made in Holland and not heaven." Actually, through spiritualization, Covenant Theology has superimposed its scheme of the covenants upon Scripture, making the Biblical covenants conform to the covenant theory by ignoring the historical and literal significance of the Biblical covenants. The various Bible covenants are conceived of by them as being merely steps in the administration of the Covenant of Grace.
      3. The system ignores the Biblical distinction between Israel and the Church.
      4. The system is characterized by a mixture of law and grace. Since this theory claims that all the Bible covenants are merely different steps in the administration of the Covenant of Grace, the Mosaic Covenant (LAW) is equated with the Covenant of Grace. Such an interpretation can only lead to hopeless confusion, for it equates law with grace (contra. John 1:17).

        While there may be many things in Covenant Theology which are in accord with Scripture, the system as a whole is totally inadequate to explain God's program for Israel and the Church, and this is particularly evident in the field of eschatology. Dr. Lewis S. Chafer's estimate of this system is a fitting conclusion for this section:

        "The theological terms. Covenant of Works and Covenant of Grace (and Covenant of Redemption), do not occur in the Sacred Text. If they are to be sustained it must be wholly apart from Biblical authority ... Upon this human invention of two covenants Reformed Theology has largely been constructed. It sees the empirical truth that God can forgive sinners only by the freedom which is secured by the sacrifice of His Son -- anticipated in the old order and realized in the new -- but that theology utterly fails to discern the purposes of the ages, the varying relationships to God of the Jews, the Gentiles, and the Church, with the distinctive, consistent human obligations which arise directly and unavoidably from the nature of each specific relationship to God. A theology which penetrates no further into Scripture than to discover that in all ages God is immutable in His grace toward penitent sinners, and constructs the idea of a universal church, continuing through the ages, on the one truth of immutable grace, is not only disregarding vast spheres of revelation but is reaping the unavoidable confusion and misdirection which part-truth engenders."
    1. Our definition of the two categories of covenants, unconditional and conditional, has already been given on p. 10, Sec. I, 6, d, (4).
    2. There are minor covenants mentioned in the Scripture which should not be confused with the major covenants, such as:
      1. Covenants between individuals and individuals. Genesis 31:44; 1 Samuel 18:3
      2. Covenants between individuals and groups. Genesis 26:28; 1 Samuel 11:1-2
      3. Covenants between nations and nations. Exodus 23:32; 34:12,15; Hosea 12:1
      4. Miscellaneous covenant relationships.
        Marriage bond Proverbs 2:17; Malachi 2:14
        Laws of nature Jeremiah 33:21, 25
    3. In the Scofield scheme and among many premillennialists eight covenants are usually designated as major covenants. They are:
      The Edenic Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17
      The Adamic Genesis 3:14-19
      The Noahic Genesis 8:21-9:17 ,24-27
      The Abrahamic Genesis 12:1-3ff.
      The Mosaic Exodus 19:5-8ff.
      The Palestinian  Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
      The Davidic 2 Samuel 7
      The New Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13, etc.
    4. Biblical covenants are normally unconditional. All of the above are so designated except the Mosaic Covenant, which is classified as conditional, "if... if... if... then I will..."
    5. Three universal and general covenants are to be observed: the Adamic, the Noahic, and the Edenic (in that the whole race is represented as present in Adam in his failure). All the other covenants are made with Israel or Israelites and apply primarily and/or totally to them.
    6. Another method of distinguishing the covenants is:
      1. Temporal - A covenant which was instituted for a limited period and which having accomplished its purpose is set aside, being superseded by another covenant without any "carryover" of primary aspects of the temporal covenant. A temporal covenant is identical with a conditional covenant (e.g., the Mosaic Covenant).
      2. Eternal - A covenant which is identical with an unconditional covenant.
    7. Two viewpoints on the covenants prior to the Abrahamic Covenant.
      1. The more generally received viewpoint is that which has been previously expressed under B, 5 above, and expanded under C and D, pp. 59-60.
      2. The viewpoint held by Dr. C. Fred Lincoln and others favors the thought that all the major covenants, clearly stated as such in the Scriptures, are made with the Jewish people, and thus BEGIN with the Abrahamic Covenant. Through these Israel entered into a special covenant relationship with "Jehovah, " their "covenant-keeping God."
      3. Among reasons cited for this viewpoint are:
        1. Romans 9:4 definitely states of Israelites: "to whom pertaineth the covenants."
        2. Ephesians 2:11-12 states that Gentiles, prior to Christ, were "strangers from the covenants of promise" and had "no hope" and were "without God in the world."
        3. Acts 3:25 says to the Jews at Jerusalem "Ye are the children ... of the covenant."
      4. The more generally received viewpoint would emphasize that in a very real sense the whole race of men were represented in Adam as he was in the garden (under the Edenic Covenant, Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17), and as he subsequently disobeyed and fell; that all are included in the effects of that fall and the promise of a Redeemer as recorded in the Adamic Covenant (Genesis 3:14-19); and that the basis of all human government is found in God's command to the whole race as represented by Noah (in the Noahic Covenant, Genesis 8:21-9:17,24-27).
      5. Perhaps of the three it is more generally questioned that the Edenic Covenant is one to be included validly, since with Adam's sin all the provisions of the Edenic Covenant ceased to exist, while in the case of all the other covenants certain aspects of the covenants (sometimes all aspects) continue to be in force, although another covenant may have been added.
      6. Although there may be difference of opinion as to whether the Edenic and Adamic "Covenants" should be called such, though the word is not used, all are in agreement regarding the truths expressed.
      7. The Edenic Covenant, according to Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17, governed the life of man after the creation and before the fall. There arc seven elements to this covenant: (Sec New Scofield, p. 5)
        1. He was to fill the earth with a new order - man.
        2. He was to subdue the earth for human uses.
        3. He was to have dominion over the animal creation.
        4. He was to eat herbs and fruits.
        5. He was to till and keep the garden.
        6. He was to abstain from eating the fruit of the tree of tile knowledge of good and evil.
        7. The penalty for disobedience was death.
  3. THE ADAMIC COVENANT Genesis 3:14-19 (See SRB note, p.9;NewSRB, p. 7)
    1. The statement of the covenant, Genesis 3:14-19. This covenant conditions the life of fallen man and gives the promise of a Redeemer.
      1. The serpent, Satan's tool, is cursed (14)
      2. The first promise of a Redeemer (15)
      3. The changed state of the woman (16)
        1. Multiplied conception
        2. Motherhood linked with sorrow (pain)
        3. The domination of the man
      4. The earth cursed for man's sake (17)
      5. The inevitable sorrow of life (17)
      6. Burdensome labor imposed (18-19)
      7. Physical death imposed (19)
    2. The curse
      1. Upon Satan, Genesis 3:14-15.
        1. Effect of sin - from first place to lowest
        2. Satan was the tempter, 2 Corinthians 11:3,14; Revelation 12:9
        3. Brazen serpent - "Christ made sin for us, " Numbers 21:5-9; John 3:14-15; 2 Corinthians 5:21
      2. Upon the woman. Genesis 3:16
        1. Greatly multiplied conception
        2. Pain in motherhood
        3. Man to be head over woman (in his sinful estate, he would oppress her; especially prominent in pagan cultures)
      3. Upon the man. Genesis 3:17-19
        1. Ground cursed because of him
        2. Sorrow, sweat of face, labor
        3. Death
      4. Upon the ground, Genesis 3:17-18
        Thorns and thistles; reluctant crops.
    3. The promise
      The seed of the woman (Christ) was to bruise the head of the Serpent (Satan). The line of the Seed: Seth, Genesis 4:25;
      Noah, Genesis 5:29; Shem, Genesis 9:26-27; Abraham, Genesis 12:1-4; Isaac, Genesis 17:19-21; Jacob, Genesis 28:10-14; Judah, Genesis 49:10; David, 2 Samuel 7:5-17; Christ, Matthew 1:1,20,23.
  4. THE NOAHIC COVENANT Genesis 8:21-9:17,24-27 (See SRB note, p. 16; New SRB, p. 15)
    Genesis 9:1-17. This covenant reaffirm s the conditions of life of fallen man under the Adamic Covenant, and institutes the principle of human government to curb the outbreak of sin since the threat of Divine judgment in the form of another flood is removed.
    1. The relation of man to the earth under the Adamic Covenant is confirmed, Genesis 8:21
    2. The order of nature is confirmed. Genesis 8:22
    3. Human government is established, Genesis 9:1-6
    4. The earth is secured against another universal judgment by water, Genesis 8:21; 9:11
    5. A prophetic declaration is made that descendants of Canaan, one of Ham's sons, will be servant to his brethren (fulfilled in Gibeonites, Joshua 9:21-27).
    6. A prophetic declaration is made that Shem will have a peculiar relation to Jehovah, Genesis 9:26-27
    7. A prophetic declaration is made that from Japheth will descend the "enlarged" races, Genesis 9:27

      The Covenants above are universal and general. Those that follow are addressed to a given nation (Israel), and must so be understood.
  5. THE ABRAHAMIC COVENANT Genesis 12:l-3ff. (See New SRB, p 19) (after John F. Walvoord, Bib. Sac., Jan. 1945)
    1. Importance to Premillennialism
      Conditions life and blessing of Abraham and his seed. Important to Premillennialism in relation to God's purpose for Israel as a nation and God's promise of permanent possession of the land. Two main issues:
      1. Is Israel promised a permanent national existence?
      2. Is Israel promised possession of the land perpetually?
    2. Analysis of the Covenant, Genesis 12:2-3
      1. There are seven main factors in the Abrahamic Covenant
        1. Promise of a great nation through Abraham cp. b, (1) below
        2. Personal blessing to Abraham cp. b, (2) below
        3. The name of Abraham shall be great cp. b, (2) below
        4. Abraham to be a blessing to other scp. b, (2) below
        5. Blessing on those blessing Abraham  cp. b, (3) and (4) below
        6. Curse on those cursing Abraham cp. b, (3) and (4) below
        7. All nations to be blessed through Abraham cp. b, (3) and (4) below
      2. Four major promises contained in the covenant
        1. National promises given to Israel; cp. a, (1) above
          1. A land. Genesis 12:1; 13:14-15,17; 15:7; 17:8; 18:21
          2. A seed, Genesis 13:16; 15:5
          3. Riches, Genesis 15:4; Exodus 12:35-36
        2. Personal promises given to Abraham; cp. a, (2), (3), (4) above
          1. I will bless thee. Genesis 12:2
          2. I will make thy name great. Genesis 12:2
          3. He will be a blessing, Genesis 12:3
        3. Principle of blessing or cursing: because of attitude toward Abraham's seed. Genesis 12:3 cp. a, (5), (6), (7) above
        4. Promise of universal blessing through Abraham above cp. a, (5), (6), (7) above
          Gen. 12:3 Fulfilled chiefly through Christ cp. a, (5), (6), (7) above

          We find that this covenant is basic to all Israel's covenants, and contains in germ form all that was later amplified to Israel by additional covenants.
      3. Confirmation and enlargement in later Scriptures:
        1. Gen. 13:14-17; 15:18-217 Abraham is promised the title to all the land. The promise of a seed amplified to "dust of earth."
        2. Gen. 15:1-7. The Seed to be Abraham's own, not Eliezer's.
        3. Gen. 17:1-18. Additional factors:
          1. The covenant solemnly confirmed, Genesis 15:17-21; 17:1-2
          2. Abram is given the name of Abraham, symbol of the promise that he would be the father of many nations. Genesis 17:5
          3. Kings were promised to him. Genesis 17:6
          4. All the land of Canaan was given to his seed as an everlasting possession, Genesis 17:8 (later expanded, Psalms 72:8-11)
          5. God promises to be the God of Abraham's posterity, Genesis 17:9
          6. Confirmation came after Abraham's unbelief and disobedience, showing covenant could not be changed.
    3. Historic fulfillment of the covenant
      1. Principle guiding the interpretation is established:
        Portions that have been fulfilled were fulfilled literally. So we therefore insist the remaining prophesied parts must be fulfilled literally.
      2. Parts of the covenant have been fulfilled in part or whole:
        1. A great nation Israel came into existence, not just a spiritual seed.
        2. Other nations beside Israel came from Abraham (from Ishmael, Esau, Moab, Ammon, cp. Lot, etc.)
        3. Personal blessing came to Abraham. Revered by Jew, Arab, Christian.
        4. Abraham and his seed have been a blessing to the whole world, through writers of Scripture, our Lord Jesus Christ, and founders of early church.
        5. Nations have been blessed who blessed Israel, cursed who cursed Israel. Contrast Babylon, Assyria, Egypt, Spain, Czarist Russia, and Hitler Germany, with England, United States.
        6. Promise of kings from Abraham has been fulfilled in kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
      3. Assets of the covenant as yet unfulfilled completely:
        1. The existence of the nation Israel forever.
        2. The possession of the land by the nation Israel forever.
        3. The everlasting blessing of the nation.

          Thus, while parts of the covenant have been fulfilled, the eternal aspects never have been.
    4. Are the promises of the Abrahamic Covenant conditional or unconditional?
      We realize that the premillennial hope is based on the unconditional interpretation of the covenant. Under the former definitions of unconditional and conditional covenants, the blessing for obedience and discipline for disobedience aspects could be urged to prove that certain aspects of the Abrahamic Covenant could be cancelled out, due to Israel's failure. Under the new definitions, failure of Israel cannot be made to cancel out an unconditional covenant. A conditional covenant can be revoked if the conditions are not met, but an unconditional covenant can never be revoked, since God promises to do everything. The issue of Premillennialism or Amillennialism is settled largely at this one point.
      1. Arguments of the Amillennialists that this covenant is a conditional covenant
        1. Conditions may be involved though not stated. They use Jonah as an illustration, "yet forty days and Nineveh shall be overthrown," but because of repentance it was not. They argue, from God's response to Nineveh's repentance, that there were unstated conditions; hence, it may be with the Abrahamic Covenant.

          Ans. We note first of all that it is impossible to point to any stated condition, for they rest their case on unstated or implied conditions . Then, it must be noted, the case of Jonah is not a case in point. With Jonah's message there was no covenant made. Jonah simply announced doom. It is always a lector that whenever a sinner repents, God may and usually does turn aside judgment. There is no parallelism between the preaching of Jonah and the Abrahamic Covenant; the former is not a covenant, but simply a specific prophecy to be fulfilled at a specific time. All covenants have continuance over a period of time have details or specifications. This prophecy has none of the aspects of a covenant. Hence, the analogy is invalid.
        2. Obedience is always a prerequisite for blessing.

          Ans. Obedience is the prerequisite to blessing, not to the covenant itself. According to our new definition, an unconditional covenant may and usually does have conditional blessings. Since we no longer define a conditional covenant as including the idea that its distinctive is blessing for obedience and discipline for disobedience, the argument can have no force against the unconditionality of the covenant.
        3. The Abrahamic Covenant was confirmed to Abraham "because thou hast obeyed my voice," Genesis 22-18.

          Ans. It must be noted that this passage necessarily takes us back to Genesis 12:1-3, where God announced the covenant in the first in stance. All of Abraham's spiritual experiences and growth were the proper fruit of obedience to the covenant. In this sense they are in extricably linked with the covenant as effect, but not as cause. The covenant did not rest upon the continued obedience of Abraham or that of Abraham's seed. but upon the faithfulness of the God who gave the covenant. The covenant was reaffirmed in Genesis 22 for Abraham's comfort after obedience, but it was not the result of that obedience. having been given to Abraham before he left Ur or his kindred or his father's house, and before he came into the land which God promised to show him. The covenant rested upon the faithfulness, not of Abraham, but the Covenanter.
        4. The rite of circumcision -- an act of obedience -- was required, proving it was conditional.

          Ans. It must be noted that the rite did not establish the covenant. The rite was imposed because the covenant was operative. The receipt of the rite did not establish the covenant for the individual circumcised, but imposed the blessings of the existing covenant upon him. The analogy of Romans 4 would be appropriate here. In that passage Paul argues that Abraham did not receive righteousness through a rite of religion (circumcision), but that the rite was given as an outward sign that he had already been declared righteous by God through faith. In other words, Genesis 15:6 preceded both logically and chronologically the institution of circumcision in Genesis 17:9ff. Circumcision was not the covenant, but the sign of an already existent covenant.
        5. Scofield, etc., hold that blessing for Israel depends on their remaining in the land; hence, it is a conditional covenant.

          Ans. We are again greatly relieved of pressure from this objection through the new definition of a conditional covenant. Thus, no condition of blessing after a covenant is formally instituted has anything to do with the way the covenant was instituted, which alone determines whether the covenant was conditional or unconditional. Further, it is an open question whether remaining in the land was the condition of blessing. The issue was obedience whether in the land or out of the land (e.g., Daniel in Babylon and Persia). God commanded Jacob to go down into Egypt (Genesis 46:2-4) and God blessed him there. During the period of Judges and during the period of Kings, Abraham's descendants were many times not blessed because of disobedience, even though they were in the land. Hence, the question of blessing is always a question of obedience on the part of Israel, not a question of whether they are in or not in the land. The covenant remained unaffected in either event.
        6. The question is raised, "Why was Esau excluded from the land if the covenant is unconditional?"

          Ans. This objection is invalid, because Esau was not in the line of "the seed" (Romans  9:7-12); hence, he was not promised the land. Also, according to the new definitions, even if a covenant is conditional, it is not implicit in such a condition that there be a cut-off point. This is all the more true of an unconditional covenant.
        7. The certainty of fulfillment is not based on its being unconditional, but on the perfect obedience of Christ.

          Ans. This is true, but the very fact that Christ came was made necessary because the covenant demanded the Blesser should come, and that was irrevocable. Further, the argument is non sequitur.
        8. The covenant that promised a multiplied seed was fulfilled in Solomon's day.

          Ans. The multiplied seed in Solomon's day may well be considered a partial fulfillment, but not by any stretch of the imagination a complete fulfillment. David had already been informed by the Holy Spirit that the territory covered by Messiah's kingdom would be "from sea to sea and from the river unto the ends of the earth" (Psalms 72:8), not only from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates (Gen. 15:18). Further, there are many millions more Jews today than in Solomon's day.
      2. Arguments of Premillennialists that the covenant is unconditional
        1. All Israel's covenants are unconditional and eternal except the Mosaic:
          1. Abrahamic, Genesis 17:7,13,19
          2. Palestinian, Ezekiel 16:60
          3. Davidic, 2 Samuel 7:16
          4. New Covenant, Isaiah 61:8
        2. Original promise (Gen. 12:1-3) was given to Abraham without any conditions. God "had said" it before he left Ur.
        3. Covenant was confirmed by reiteration and enlargement.
        4. Solemnized by recognized method of confirming an oath. Genesis 15:7-21; Jeremiah 34:18. The sacrificed animals signify an unbreakable blood covenant.
        5. A visible sign, circumcision, was given, Genesis 17:9-14.
        6. The covenant was confirmed by birth of Isaac and reiterated by promises to him, Genesis 17:19.
        7. The covenant was confirmed to Jacob, Genesis 28:12-13.
        8. The covenant was fulfilled in part, in spite of disobedience.
        9. (9) The covenant was confirmed in spite of disobedience, Jeremiah 31:31-41. (10) The covenant was declared immutable in N.T., Galatians 3:17-18; Hebrews 6:17-18.
    5. Future fulfillment of Abrahamic Covenant to Israel (cp. Section VI, C. (Similarities and Contrasts between the Present Age and preceding ages - Summary)
      1. Will Israel continue as a NATION or will the Church fulfill Israel's promises? (See Bib. Sac. 1945)
        1. This is a decisive question of interpretation. It determines the program of the future.
        2. N.T. contrasts between Israel and the Gentiles
          1. Israel is addressed as a nation after the institution of Church, Romans 10:1; Acts 3:12.
          2. Term "Jews" is constantly used as distinct from "church" or "Gentiles," 1 Corinthians 10:32.
          3. The future is revealed for unbelieving Jews and for unbelieving Gentiles, Matthew 24-25; Revelation 6-19.
          4. Israel as a whole is declared to have inherited promises, not the Church, Romans 9:3-4.
          5. A Jew is not made into a Gentile, nor vice versa, but both are made a new man in Christ, Ephesians 2:15. This shows the Gentiles are not viewed as Israel in the New Testament.
        3. Natural Israel and the Church contrasted
          1. Natural Israel seen since formation of Church, 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16.
          2. Argument of Romans 11: natural Israel is blinded, and spiritual Israel is in the Church; it predicts a glorious future for an Israel after the "fullness" of the Gentiles has come in:
            1. Completion and rapture of Church
            2. Completion of God's dealings with Gentiles in judgment
          3. Preservation of Israel as nation to the present is a miracle. This shows that the Church is not Israel in the N. T.
        4. Spiritual Israel and Gentile Christians are contrasted in the N.T.
          1. Romans 9:6. Contrast between Israelites who receive national promises and those inheriting spiritual ones.
          2. Galatians 6:15-16. Two classes: those who "walk according to this rule" (Gentile believers in Church) and "the Israel of God" (saved Jews in Church).
          3. Every use of "Israel" or "Jew" in the N.T. is an allusion to racial origin or Israel's national entity; it is never used of a Gentile believer or the Church corporately. This shows that believers do not become Jews in this age.
        5. Has Israel been disinherited?
          Matthew 21:43 says the kingdom is given to people bringing forth fruits. not unbelieving Jews, but any believing people. This refers to the present "mystery" form of the kingdom in men's hearts, while the literal, earthly kingdom is in abeyance due to Israel's rejection of her Messiah. That Israel will be preserved nationally until the earthly reign of Christ is set up, fulfilling the covenants, is declared in Romans 11:1-32:
          1. God has not cast off Israel, vv. 1-2
          2. Always a remnant, v.3
          3. Unbelief never caused God to cast off His people, v.4
          4. Present election is one of grace, v.5
          5. Present blindness will be lifted, v.25
          6. All (God's) Israel will be saved, v.26
          7. This is a fulfillment of a covenant, v. 27
          8. Gifts and calling of God without repentance (i.e., not rescinded), v. 29
      2. Will Israel possess the LAND?
        1. The promise to Abraham, Genesis 15:18-21
        2. It is confirmed by the Palestinian Covenant,  Deuteronomy 30:1-10
        3. It is confirmed by the promise of Israel's regathering
          1. Dispersions were prophesied,  Deuteronomy 28:63-68
          2. Dispersions do not abrogate promise to land; they are the penalty for sin
          3. Promises of final regathering have not been fulfilled, Isaiah 66:20-22; Jeremiah 23:3-8
          4. Not fulfilled by Solomon, 1 Kings 4:21
            1. Not permanent
            2. Not all lands possessed or occupied that were given Abraham in Genesis 15:18-21
            3. Scripture given after Solomon's day predicts future fulfillment, Isaiah 66:19-20; Jeremiah 23:3-8
      3. Will Israel be restored? (Bib. Sac,, October 1945)
        1. Romans 11:26 has already shown "Israel" here is not "all believers, " but those repentant Jews who will constitute "God's Israel" as a "holy nation" after the return of Christ (when followers of the Beast will have been purged out).
        2. Nature of this deliverance, Isaiah 59:20; Zion is always a reference to Jerusalem, unless specified as heavenly Zion; even then it is heaven, not the Church which is meant, Hebrews 12:22-23.
        3. When will Israel's restoration take place? Romans 11:25 - after the end of Gentile period; after Israel s blindness is lifted.
          Thus, we believe:
          1. Israel will have a future permanent national existence.
          2. Israel will have permanent possession of the land
          3. Israel will have a future blessing which she was promised.
  6. THE MOSAIC COVENANT Ex 195-8ff. (See New SRB, p.95)
    This covenant had governed Israel's conduct as a redeemed people. It was given to them, however, not as a means of redemption or attainment unto a covenant relation to God, but because, they were in right relation to God as a redeemed nation under God's covenant with that people descended from Abraham. (Chafer, Systematic Theology, VII, p. 98) Its purpose was to provide a way whereby this people Israel might become:

    a peculiar treasure Exodus 19:5
    a kingdom of priests Exodus 19:6
    an holy nation Exodus 19:6
    1. The covenant mentioned in Exodus 19:5 is a new covenant, and not a restatement of the existing Abrahamic Covenant as seen from the following considerations:
      1. There is a break between v.4 and v.5. Through v.4 God is reviewing His gracious dealing with Israel. In v.5 God introduces certain conditions through which Israel may receive blessings, and requirements are imposed which must be fully met before blessing will come.
      2. The contrasts in Genesis 12 and Exodus 19 show that the covenants differ. Genesis 12 is unconditional - "I will, " while Exodus 19 is conditional - "if... if... if... then I will."
      3. In Hebrews 12 the contrast between Sinai (w. 18-19) and Zion (w. 22-24) shows that a law covenant and a grace covenant are mutually exclusive.
      4. The parallel passage in Deuteronomy 4:8-14 shows that the covenant referred to is that of the 10 Commandments.
    2. This Mosaic Covenant is contrasted with the New Covenant and the Abrahamic Covenant which are based on grace:
      1. The Mosaic Covenant is not a part of the New Covenant, Galatians 4:19-31; Hebrews 8:7ff.; Jeremiah 31:31-34
      2. The Mosaic Covenant is contrasted with the Abrahamic, Galatians 3:15-18; Romans 4:13-16
    3. To whom does the Mosaic Covenant pertain?
      1. Not to the Gentiles, Romans 2:14
      2. Not to Christians, Romans 6:14; Galatians 3:24-25; Acts 15:1,5,10-11,15,17,19-20, 24,28-29
      3. It is for Israel alone, Romans 9:4; Acts 3:25
    4. Law and Grace cannot be mixed. Romans 4:16; 11:6; Galatians 5:2-4
    5. Analysis of the Mosaic Covenant.

      The Mosaic Covenant, often referred to as "the Law," may be divided into three parts, but constituting one whole.
      1. The Commandments, Exodus 20:1-26
        They were given orally, then written twice in stones, and in a book.
      2. The Judgments, Exodus 21:1-23:13
        These judgments were to govern the social life of the nation.
        1. The judgments, Exodus 21:1-23:13
        2. Rules for the three main feasts, Exodus 23:14-19
        3. Rules in view of the conquest of the land, Exodus 23:20-33; Leviticus 26:1-39; Deuteronomy 28-29; 30:10-20
        4. The covenant was ratified by blood, Exodus 24:1-11
      3. The Ordinances, Ceremonies, and Sacrifices, Exodus 24:12-40:38
        These sacrifices and offerings were gracious in their conception.
        Anticipating a broken law. God graciously provided a covering (atonement) that fellowship with Himself might be maintained.
        1. Voluntary offerings. Leviticus 1:3; 2:1; 19:5; Numbers 15:2-21
          1. Burnt offerings. Leviticus 22:18-19
          2. Meal offerings, Numbers 15:3-5
          3. Peace offerings, Leviticus 19:5
            These were the Sweet Savor Offerings, offered voluntarily, as an act of worship.
        2. Obligatory Sacrifices, Leviticus 4-5; Numbers 15:22-29
          1. Sin offering
          2. Trespass offering
            These were the Non-Sweet Savor Offerings, but required offerings in cases of transgression through ignorance. Leviticus 4:2-3; 5:1-5.
          3. In cases of "willful sin" (cp. Psalms 19:13) there was no sacrifice acceptable, only the fearful expectation of death. All the willful sinner could do was cast himself on the grace of God and plead for mercy.
    6. It will be noted that the covenant was ratified with blood (Exodus 24:1-11) in the solemn method of ratification of a covenant.
    7. The Mosaic Covenant was one complete whole.
      It is wrong, therefore, to say that a part of the legal system ("the ceremonial law") has been set aside, while "the moral law" as such continues. It is the whole system of law-works that is done away with (Galatians 2:16; Romans 3:20; Galatians 3:23-25). It is that subtle "confidence" or "trust in the flesh" that comes to the one who supposes he is keeping the law (Philippians 3:4-6); that makes him "go about to establish his own righteousness" (Romans 10:1-3). It is that "law for righteousness"--the whole system of a human merit basis—of which "Christ is the end" (Romans 10:4-5).

      It should be observed, however, that although the Israelitish Age has ended, and the Dispensation of the Law is no longer the rule of life of God's people in this the Church Age, nevertheless, the N.T. epistles restate, recast, and heighten the ethical content and principles of all 10 commandments, except the Sabbath commandment.
    8. Some facts about the law:
      1. "The" law given at a specific time.
        None from Adam to Moses (Romans 5:13-14)
        By Moses John 1:17)
        Till seed (Galatians 3:19)
      2. Not given for mans salvation, but added:
        1. Because of transgression, Galatians 3:19
        2. That offence might abound. Romans 5:20
        3. Holy, just, good, Romans 7:12, so through the commandment sin became exceeding sinful, Romans 7:13
        4. So all arc guilty, Romans 3:19
          Fragmentary obedience is not enough, Luke 18:11-12; James 2:10
      3. What the law could not do, Christ did, Romans 8:3
        1. Christ was the end of law for righteousness, Romans 10:4
        2. Christian is judicially dead to law, Galatians 2:19; Romans 7:4
      4. The law is not the rule of life today.
        1. Error of Galatians 5:1-15; 1 Timothy 1:8-10
        2. We are not under the law but grace, Romans 6:14
        3. We are the sons in the Father's house. Galatians 4:2,6-7
        4. We are in the kingdom of His dear Son, Colossians 1:13
        5. Jesus is the believer's Lord (1 Corinthians 12:3; Philippians 3:8) and so we are responsible to His will for love's sake.
        6. We are free. Galatians 5:1, but not libertines, Galatians 5:13
    9. The covenant of works -- or of the law-was given to Israel only, Exodus 19:3;  Deuteronomy 5:1-3; Romans 2:12-14. (However, the law does its work wherever it goes, Romans 2:14-15.)
    10. The purpose of the law:
      1. Positively:
        1. To reveal God's holiness, Romans 7:12
        2. To give knowledge of sin, Romans 7:7
        3. To stop mouths, Romans 3:19
        4. To constitute one guilty before God, Romans 3:19
        5. To bring under a curse, Romans 3:10
        6. To bring to Christ, Galatians 3:24
      2. Negatively:
        1. Unable to justify, Romans 3:20; Galatians 2:16
        2. Made nothing perfect, Hebrews 7:18-19
        3. It was an "added" condition for a limited time only -- "till the Seed should come, " Galatians 3:19
        4. Could not give life. Galatians 3:21-22
        5. It was weak because of man's flesh, Romans 8:3
        6. It only stirred up sin, Romans 7:5, 8-9
        7. And was sin's strength, 1 Corinthians 15:56
    11. Christ's relation to the law can be seen by the following considerations;
      1. He was "made" under it. Galatians 4:4
      2. He perfectly obeyed it, John 8:46; 1 Peter 2:22-23
      3. He was the minister of it.
        1. Mercilessly to the Jews, "this do, " Luke 10:25-37
        2. But confirmed its promises, Romans 15:8
      4. He fulfilled its types in life and death, Hebrews 9:11-26
      5. He bore its curse in our stead. Galatians 3:13-14
        (Thus enabled the blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant to come to the believer.)
      6. He made believers "sons" instead of "servants, " Galatians 4:1-7
      7. His blood mediated the New Covenant, Hebrews 8:6-13
        (He established the law of Christ and the believer is "in-lawed" to Him, 1 Corinthians 9:21.)
  7. THE DAVIDIC COVENANT 2 Samuel 7 (See New SRB, p. 365)
    Closely akin to the Abrahamic Covenant in importance is the covenant made with David. It is important to our premillennial study.
    1. Analysis of the covenant 2 Samuel 7:12-16
      1. David's son shall succeed him and establish his kingdom.
      2. This son shall build the temple instead of David.
      3. The throne of his kingdom shall be established forever.
      4. The throne will not be taken away even though his sons' sins justify chastisement.
      5. David's house, throne, and kingdom shall be established forever.
    2. Meaning of the covenant
      1. Distinguish the promises to Solomon and David; Solomon promised the immediate throne; David's seed promised the kingdom forever.
      2. David's "house" (his physical descendants) were never to be destroyed completely.
      3. The throne refers to the dignity and power of the king, not the material throne.
      4. Kingdom: reference to the double political kingdom or sphere of rule.
      5. Forever: never abrogated, annulled, or succeeded.
    3. Confirmation
      1. Cp. History
      2. Psalm 89:3-4.28-37
    4. Problem of fulfillment
      1. All conservative theologians agree it is fulfilled in Christ. Luke 1:31-33; Matthew 1:1; 2:2
      2. Question is: HOW and WHEN Christ fulfills it:
        1. Some say it is fulfilled BY PRESENT SESSION of Christ at right hand of the Fat-her reigning over The "church triumphant" in heaven (i.e. , saints who have gone to be with the Lord). So, WARFIELD (of Princeton) and some amillennialists.
        2. Some say it is fulfilled in "the kingdom of God" as represented now by the Church and Christian principles on earth. They say this is the ONLY reign of Christ as it affects the earth, but it is actually a reign of Christ in heaven over the Church on earth. So, AUGUSTINE and most amillennialists hold. Obviously, this is not the long-promised 1000 year reign, for it is between the two advents, not. after the second advent, of Christ.
        3. Some postmillennialists hold a similar view to (2) of an ever-expanding kingdom of Christ on earth today in the spiritual sense, but they differ from amillennialists in that they believe that Christ will eventually come back to earth and take over this kingdom in a personal rule sometime after the period which God knows to be the 1000 year reign has begun, and that He will complete any part of the 1000 years yet' remaining to run (post-millennial means any time after the 1000 years have begun, whether little or much has passed).
        4. Some say it is fulfilled by the return of Christ which BEGINS His 1000 year reign-n on earth. These are called premillennialists.
    5. Does the Davidic Covenant require literal fulfillment?
      1. Arguments for a literal interpretation
        1. Solemn character of a covenant, confirmed by oath.
        2. Spiritual fulfillment is not befitting a solemn covenant.
        3. Both David and Solomon understood it to be literal, 2 Samuel 7:18-19; 2 Chronicles 6:14-16
        4. Language used, also used by prophets, denotes literal throne and kingdom.
        5. The Jews expected a literal fulfillment.
        6. The throne and kingdom, as promise and inheritance, belong to the humanity of Christ (David's seed) rather than to His deity. His literal humanity as David's seed necessitates a literal people to rule over.
        7. There is no ground for identifying David's throne (on earth) and the Father's throne (in heaven), Revelation 3:21
        8. Symbolical interpretation reduces the meaning to human opinion.
        9. Literal fulfillment is needed to display God's government 0,1 the earth, which is necessary to the restoration and exaltation of the Jewish nation, and deliverance of the earth from the curse.
        10. Literal fulfillment is necessary to preserve the Divine unity of purpose.
      2. Effect of literal interpretation
        1. Present session of Christ is not a fulfillment.
        2. Then a future fulfillment is required.
        3. Premillennial system of interpretation is thus necessary.
      3. Difficulties in literal fulfillment
        1. There is not continuous development of the political kingdom of David.
        2. Does Israel's captivity and downfall argue against literal interpretation?
        3. Do centuries since Christ prove no literal fulfillment?

          1. Literal fulfillment is singled out in N.T., Luke 1:32-33
          2. Postponement or delay does not affect the fulfillment.
          3. Occupancy of the throne need not necessarily be continuous. The only necessary feature is that the lineage cannot be lost.
          4. Literal fulfillment is in keeping with other covenants
          5. N.T. teaching on reign of Christ
            1. There are 59 references to David in N. T. Not one refers to the throne on which Christ is seated now.
            2. Interpretation of Acts 15:14-17
              The restoration of the "Tabernacle of David" in its ultimate explanation (Amos 9:11-15) refers to the reestablishment of the nation Israel (not the Church) through the return and reign of David's greater son, Christ. The rebuilt kingly house presumes the rebuilt kingdom.

Conclusion: The Davidic Covenant demands a future literal fulfillment.

  1. THE PALESTINIAN COVENANT Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
    This covenant gives the conditions under which Israel would enter the land of promise. This was an eternal covenant (Ezekiel 16:60-62). (See New SRB, p. 251)
    1. Analysis of the covenant
      1. Dispersion for disobedience, Deuteronomy 28:63-68
      2. Future repentance of Israel while in dispersion, Deuteronomy 30:2
      3. Return of the Lord, Deuteronomy 30:3
      4. Restoration to the land, Deuteronomy 30:5
      5. National conversion, Deuteronomy 30:6
      6. Judgment of Israel's oppressors, Deuteronomy 30:7
      7. National prosperity, Deuteronomy 30:9
    2. Confirmation in later Scriptures Ezekiel 16:60-62
    3. Historical fulfillment
      The first portion – dispersion -- has been tragically fulfilled. The restoration has been only partially fulfilled.
    4. Ultimate fulfillment
      All that was promised under 1 above must be fulfilled. Some may say, "This is a conditional covenant, 'if.. .if.. .then.'" But notice that God Himself has promised to bring about the only condition--conversion (Romans 11:26-27; Hosea 2:14-16) -- making its fulfillment certain.
      If this is to be fulfilled literally, Israel must be:
      1. Regathered
      2. Installed in her own land, which she will fully possess
      3. Converted
      4. See her enemies judged
      5. Receive material blessings This is exactly what God has promised, Hosea 1:10-2:1,14-23.
  2. THE NEW COVENANT Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13; etc. (See New SRB, p. 1317)
    1. Important Scriptures:
      Jeremiah 31:31-34; Ezekiel 16:60; Isaiah 59:20-21 with Romans 11:26-27; Isaiah 61:2-11; Hosea 2:14-23; Hebrews 7:22; 8:6-13; 9:1,11-22; 10:15-20,28-29; Matthew 26:28; Mark 12:24; Luke 22:20; 1 Corinthians 11:25; 2 Corinthians 3:6
    2. The three views proposed to explain the New Covenant
      1. Amillennial view: It is a covenant made with the Church which has replaced Israel due to her failure. (We reject this view.)
      2. Chafer's suggestion: There are two "New Covenants"; one with the Church and one yet to be made with Israel. (Ingenious, but totally lacking proof.)
      3. View of precise dispensationalists: The New Covenant is yet to be ratified with a repentant Israel, but in the meantime the Church anticipatively enters into its benefits because she is in Christ, God's true Israel, the Seed of Abraham. (This is the view held in these notes.)
    3. Why called "New"?
      1. When first mentioned it was then called "new" (Jeremiah 31:31) in contrast with the first or older covenant, the Mosaic Covenant.
      2. This contrast is also made in Hebrews 8:6-13.
    4. This covenant was for the nation Israel
      1. The name "New" presupposes a preexisting covenant which this new covenant supplants. As the old covenant (the Mosaic) was to Israel, so must this new covenant be.
      2. This covenant was called "New" (Jeremiah 31:31) before the death of Christ and the institution of the Church, which latter did not take place until Pentecost, Acts 2.
      3. Because of the fact that the perpetuity of Israel as a nation is linked with it, Jeremiah 31:35-40.
      4. Because the promise in Jeremiah 31:31, 34 is "with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah."
      5. Because Israel's restoration to the land is linked with this covenant, Jeremiah 31:38-40.
    5. Analysis of the covenant
      In Jeremiah 31:27-40 we find the following facts set forth and pledged:
      1. Regeneration, for the law will be put in their inward parts and written on their hearts, v.33.
      2. Restoration of Israel to God's favor and blessing, for He will be their God and they shall be His people, v.33.
      3. The gift of the Holy Spirit, for they will be taught of God, v.34.
      4. Justification, for there will be forgiveness and removal of all sin, v.34.
      5. Everlasting blessings, vv. 35-37.
      6. Exaltation; Israel will become the head of the nations, vv. 38-40.
      7. Blood of Christ is the foundation of all the covenant blessings, Zech. 9:11; Hebrews 13:20; 10:29; 1 Corinthians 11:25; Matthew 26:28; etc.
    6. Confirmation of the covenant in the N.T.
      1. After the Church is founded, a future fulfillment of the New Covenant with Israel is asserted and predicted, Hebrews 8:8.
      2. Hebrews 7, 8, 9,10,12,13 have in view the future blessings of the nation, as well as the present blessings of believers of this age, who are saved by the blood shed as required by the New Covenant.
    7. The relation of the Church to the New Covenant
      1. The blood of the New Covenant which the Lord Jesus Christ shed on Calvary is the basis of the believer's blessing in this present age. Thus we participate in the value of the covenant to the sinner.
      2. The Church partakes of the Lord's Supper in remembrance of the blood of the New Covenant.
      3. Christ is a "minister of the New Covenant, " 1 Corinthians 11:25.
      4. The believer is a child of Abraham because he is of the household of faith, Galatians 3:7.
      5. The believer is a seed of Abraham because he belongs to Christ, Galatians 3:16, 29.
      6. He is said to partake of the root and fatness of the olive tree, Romans 11:17.
      7. He is no longer an "alien" and "stranger, " although a Gentile, because he has been "made nigh by the blood of Christ, " Ephesians 2:12-19.
      8. He benefits in the New Covenant as a fellow-citizen of the saints and the household of God, not as a member of the commonwealth of Israel, Ephesians 2:12.

        Thus we conclude that the believer today is saved by the blood shed to make possible the New Covenant. All spiritual blessings are his through that blood. His eternal destiny rests solely on the blood of the New Covenant, but the believer is not put in the commonwealth of Israel, " nor made a Jew. Since the believer is a child of Abraham by faith (Galatians 3:14-16, 29), he is eligible to receive the blessings promised to the faithful seed of Abraham, which would be made possible and actual by the blood of the New Covenant. But the application of the blood of the New Covenant to the believer today does not mean that the New Covenant to be made with Israel is being fulfilled in the Church or will not be fulfilled to Israel in the future.

        To summarize, the New Covenant can only be made with the people with whom God made the Old Covenant, that is, with Israel. However, because of our union with Christ, as "the seed of Abraham, " we enter into the spiritual benefits of that New Covenant by anticipation, for that covenant is yet to be ratified with a repentant Israel at Christ's second advent.
    1. The following covenants are declared to be eternal by the Scriptures:
      1. Abrahamic, Genesis 17:7, 13, 19; 1 Chronicles 16:17; Psalms 105:8-10
      2. Palestinian, Jeremiah 32:40; Ezek. 16:60
      3. Davidic, 2 Samuel 23:5; 7:16; Isaiah 55:3; Jeremiah 33:20-21
      4. New, Isaiah 61:8; Jeremiah 50:5; Hebrews 13:20

        NOTE: The covenant of the law is not called "eternal." It was said
        a.  to be added till the seed should come. Galatians 3:19
        b.  to be our child discipliner until or up to Christ, Galatians 3:24
    2. Key point in each covenant (See New SRB, p. 1317)
      1. Edenic - conditioned life before the fall in innocency
      2. Adamic - conditioned life after the fall; promises a Redeemer
      3. Noahic - principle of human government
      4. d. Abrahamic -
        a seed,
        a land,
        and a Blesser
      5. Mosaic - ministry of condemnation and restraint of Israel
      6. Palestinian - restoration and conversion of Israel in their own land
      7. Davidic - perpetuity of David's family, and guarantee of a Davidic Son to sit on David's throne to reign over David's kingdom and the world
      8. New - a new heart through regeneration based on the death of Christ
    3. Relation of Christ to each of the Covenants (See New SRB, p. 1318)
      1. Edenic - Christ is the "second man, " the "last Adam, " who regains the headship Adam lost, 1 Corinthians 15:45-47; 1 Corinthians 2:10
      2. Adamic - Christ is the "seed of the woman, " John 12:31; Galatians 4:4; 1 John 3:8, and fulfilled its conditions of toil (Mk. 6:3) and obedience.
      3. c. Noahic - Christ as the greatest Son of Shem fulfills the promise to Shem, Genesis 9:26-27; Colossians 2:9
      4. Abrahamic - Christ is the Seed to Whom the promises were made, Galatians 3:16, and the One obedient unto death. Genesis 22:18; Philippians 2:8
      5. Mosaic - Christ lived sinlessly under the law, 1 Peter 2:22, and bore its curse for us. Galatians 3:10-13
      6. Palestinian - Christ lived obediently under it in the land, and will perform its promises, Deuteronomy 28:1-30:9
      7. Davidic - Christ is the "Seed, " "Heir, " "King, " Matthew 1:1; Luke 1:31-33
      8. New - Christ's sacrifice is the foundation, Matthew 26:27-28; 1 Corinthians 11:25, and He will one day ratify it with Israel!

    (Contrast the so-called "theological covenants," pages 54-57)
    ALL the covenants are unconditional except the Mosaic Covenant.
    All references are from  the New Scofield Reference Bible
    EDENIC Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17 Adam and Eve Life of man in innocency Fill earth
    Subdue earth
    Rule earth
    Eat fruit
    Till earth
    Abstain from evil
    ADAMIC Genesis 3:14-19 Adam Life of fallen man Serpent
    Moral Responsibility (Conscience)
    NOAHIC Genesis 8:21-9:17, 24-27 Noah and Sons Life ruled by man Relation
    Human rule
    No more floods
    Human Rule
    ABRAHAMIC Genesis 12:1-3 ff Abram Abram and descendants Israel
    Great name
    Abram a blessing
    Friends blessed
    Foes cursed
    MOSAIC Exodus 19:5-8 ff Israel ISRAEL as to:
    A.  Will of God
    B.  Social life
    C.  Religious life
    A. Commandments
    B.  Judgments
    C.  Ordinances (sacrifices)
    PALESTINIAN Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9 Israel Entering and possessing the land Dispersion
    Return of Lord
    Judgment on oppressors
    DAVIDIC 2 Samuel 7 David and Descendants Kingdom House
    Discipline upon disobedient in Davidic line
    Law and Kingdom
    NEW Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13, etc. Israel primarily, but all in Christ Church Age and Millennium Better
    Willing heart and mind
    Personal revelation
    Sins forgotten
    Accomplished redemption
    Future covenant and blessing of Israel
    Church and Kingdom
  5. The inter-relationships between THE COVENANTS and THE AGES (often called Dispensations)
    * (see comment on similarities and differences - Eschatology 1, I, B; the titles used in the right column are non-technical and not precise as in Eschatology 1, Section II to end,)

    COVENANT *AGE (or Dispensation)
    1.  EDENIC
    Genesis 1:26-28; 2:15-17
    Conditions life of man in innocency
    Genesis 1:28-3:6
    2. ADAMIC
    Genesis 3:14-19
    a.  Conditions life of fallen man Adam and
    b.  Gives promise of a Redeemer
    Genesis 3:7-8:14
    (Moral Responsibility)
    3.  NOAHIC
    Genesis 8;21-9:17, 24-27
    Establishes the principles of Human rule based on the sanctity of life
    3.  HUMAN RULE
    Genesis 8:15-11:26
    (the sign - rainbow)
    Genesis 12:1-3 ff
    a.  Founds the nation of Israel; secures the land;
    b.  Confirms and adds to the Adamic Covenant promise of redemption and thus looks forward to the Church.
    4.  PROMISE
    Genesis 11:27-Exodus 18:27
    (the sign - circumcision)

    6.  CHURCH
    Acts 2:1-Revelaton 3:22
    (the sign - Bride of Christ)
    5.  MOSAIC
    Exodus 19:5-8 ff
    a.  Puts Israel under a temporary, conditional relationship for blessing based on merit.
    b.  Condemns all men, "for that all have sinned."
    5.  LAW
    Exodus 19:1-Acts 1:26
    (the sign - the Sabbath)
    Deuteronomy 28:63-68; 30:1-9
    a.  Secures the final restoration and conversion of Israel
    b.  Gives the conditions for entering and possessing the land
    c.  Israel has not so entered yet, but will in the Millennial Kingdom.
    Rev. 20; 21:9-22:5
    (Millennial Kingdom)
    (the sign - Restored to land; converted to God)
    7.  DAVIDIC
    2 Samuel 7
    a.  Assures the perpetuity of David's family
    b.  Guarantees the Davidic Kingdom over Israel and the whole world.
    Rev. 20; 21:9-22:5
    (Millennial Kingdom)
    (the sign - Son of David reigning on earth)
    Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:6-13, etc.
    a.  Rests on Christ's sacrifice
    b.  Its blessings are eternal
    c.  It looks back to the Abrahamic Covenant, Galatians 3:13-29
    d.  It is unconditional, final, irreversible
    e.  Contrasts with Law
    f.  It is not for the Church in the first instance, but its benefits are broad enough to include the Church's blessing.
    Rev. 20; 21:9-22:5
    (Millennial Kingdom)
    (the sign - the curse of Genesis 3 removed; a new heart)

    6.  CHURCH
    Acts 2:1-Revelation 3:22


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