Understanding The Bible
W. W. RUGH, "The Bible and its Books"
Outline Study Guide


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W. W. Rugh, Bible Institute of Philadelphia


The Bible is the revelation of redemption, purposed and planned by the Father, accomplished by the Son, and revealed by the Holy Spirit (John 3: 16; II Cor. 5: 18, 19; Col. 1:15, 16; Eph. 1:3; 3:11; I Peter 1:20; John 17:24; Rom. 11:36; Heb. 1:1-3; 2:9-18; Acts 10:38-43; I Cor. 15:3, 4; II Peter 1:21; John 16:13-15).

The Bible has been written to teach, reprove, correct, and instruct in righteousness, that the man of God may be perfect, completely furnished unto every good work (II Tim. 3:16, 17; 2:15; Ps. 119: 105; Isa. 55:11; Rom. 10: 17; I Peter 1: 23).



Old Testament
Subject — Revelation of redemption through type, promise, prophecy, and psalm (Luke 24:25-27, 44-47; Heb. 1:1).
Purpose — To reveal the person and work of the Redeemer who was to come (Rom. 16:4; I Cor. 10:11; Heb. 8:5; 9:10-12, 24; 10:1; Ps. 8:2-8; Heb. 2:5-9; I Peter 1:10, 11).

New Testament
Subject — Revelation of redemption accomplished through the person and work of Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:1, 21, 23; Isa. 7: 14; 9: 6, 7; Luke 1: 31-33; Heb. 9: 26, 24, 28).
Purpose — Written to make us wise unto salvation and service (II Tim. 3: 15; Eph. 2.8-10; Rom. 1:16, 17; II Cor. 8:9; 9:8; John 15:16; 17:18-20; Acts 1:8).



Law, or Pentateuch — Genesis to Deuteronomy.
Subject — God’s ways in redemption as revealed in the beginning of His work (Ps. 103: 7).
Purpose — To make known to us, from the beginning, the end of God’s purpose and work of redemption (Isa. 46:9, 10; Gen. 1:28; 22:16-18; Heb. 6:13-16; Acts 15:18; Rev. 22:3-16).

Historical Books — Joshua to Esther.
Subject — God’s acts, or dealings with Israel to cause them to inherit the promised land (Ps. 103:7; Gen. 13:15; 22:17, 18; Ex. 6:6-8; Deut. 4:37, 38; Josh. 1:1-9).
Purpose — To illustrate for us how our Lord deals with us to cause us to enjoy our place and blessings in the heavenlies (Josh. 1: 3; Eph. 1: 3, 21; Rom. 8:17; Heb. 4: 9; I Cor. 10:11).

Poetical Books — Job to Song of Songs.
Subject — Experience of God’s people in Old Testament times, as He sought to reveal Himself to them and through them (Job 42:5, 6, 10; Ps. 1:1-3; 3:3; 11:4, 5; 23; 33:18-22).
Purpose — To reveal to us the experience of Christ and our experience in Him (Col. 2:6; John 16:7).

Prophetical Books—Isaiah to Malachi.
Subject — God’s counsels concerning Christ, Israel, and the nations (Isa. 46: 9, 10; Dan. 9:24-27; Zech. 8:23).
Purpose — To give us a “light in a dark place” (II Peter 1:19).



The Four Gospels
— History of the birth, life, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ (Matt. 1:1; Mark 10:45; Luke 19:10; John 1:14).
Purpose — To reveal how God accomplished the work of redemption, and to give us the foundation for the doctrine in the Epistles (Rom. 4:25; Gal. 4:4-6).

The Acts
Subject — What Jesus continues to do and teach by His Spirit, through believers, since His ascension (Acts 1:1-5).
Purpose — Written to give us God’s purpose, plan, and power, for every believer during this age (Acts 1: 8; 2: 33, 38, 39; 4: 31; 13: 2-4; Acts 15: 14; 20: 28; 26:16-18).

The Epistles
Subject — The doctrine, or teaching concerning what Jesus Christ has done, is doing, and will do for all who will believe during this age (Heb. 9:26, 24, 28).
Purpose — Written to give us the foundation for our faith for salvation, service, and hope (Rom. 1:16, 17; 3: 21-26; 4: 5; 5: 1-11; 8: 23-25; 12; II Cor.- 6: 14, 16; Eph. 2; 10, I Thess, 4; 13-18, I Cor, 15; 51-58; Titus 2; 12-14).

Subject — Prophecy concerning the Judgments of Jesus Christ, the God-appointed Judge (Rev. 1:1-3; John 5:22, 27).
Purpose — To make known to us what shall be the end or consummation of all of
God’s redemptive purpose (Num. 23:19; Titus 1:2; Isa. 55:11).

Genesis—“Beginnings”; Hebrew name—“In the beginning.”
Subject — God’s works and ways in restoring a wrecked earth in seven days, and His ways in redemption with seven men (Gen. 1: 1 to 2: 3; 2: 4 to 50).

Purpose — Written to outline for us typically every step in God’s plan of redemption, individually and dispensationally (Isa. 46: 9, 10; Acts 15: 18).

Outline—Gen. 1: 1—Original creation perfect (Isa. 45: 18).

Restoration of wrecked earth—
1st Day, Gen. 1: 2-5 — Light enters.
2d Day, Gen. 1: 6-8 — Separation of waters.
3d Day, first half, Gen. 1: 9, 10 — Earth raised up.
3d Day, second half, Gen. 1:11-13 — Earth made fruitful.
4th Day, Gen. 1: 14-19 — Earth illuminated from heaven.
5th Day, Gen. 1:20-23 — Living creatures of waters and air brought forth and blessed.
6th Day, Gen. 1: 24-28 — Animals of earth brought forth and God’s companion, co-laborer, and co-ruler created and blessed.
7th Day, Gen. 2: 1-3 — God’s rest.

Redemption of seven men
Adam, Gen. 2:4 to 3: 24—“Light out of darkness.”
Abel, Gen. 4 and 5—Death, separation unto God.
Noah, Gen. 6-11—Out of the old into the new earth.
Abraham, Gen. 12-21—Fruitfulness in power of resurrection life.
Isaac, Gen. 22-26—Enjoying possessions in the land.
Jacob, Gen. 27-36—Disciplined and made a blessing.
Joseph, Gen. 37-50—A son, brother, servant, ruler, and saviour.

Exodus—Hebrew name—“These are the names” (Ex. 1:1).
Subject—God’s ways in delivering Israel from bondage, bringing them near, and into covenant relationship with Himself (Ex. 6:6-8; 19:4-8; 24:1-7; 25:8).
Purpose—To illustrate for us typically the necessity, method, and purpose of God
in redeeming us (Eph. 2:1-10).
Ex. I—Names and bondage of Israel.
Ex. 2-18—Deliverer and deliverance of Israel from bondage.
Ex. 19-24—Brought near to God and under covenant of the law.
Ex. 25-40—Brought into the Lord’s sanctuary.

Leviticus—Hebrew name—“The Lord Called” (Lev. 1:1).
—God’s way of acceptable approach into His holy presence for Israel, and the holy life becoming them there (Lev. 1 to 16; 17 to 27).
Purpose—To reveal to us typically the acceptable way to come to God, and the holy life becoming us who have been accepted in the Beloved (John 14: 6; Eph. 1: 6; 5: 1-3).
Lev. 1-7—Acceptable offerings, the righteous basis for Israel’s acceptance before God (John 1:29; Heb. 10:1-18).
Lev. 8-10—Acceptable Priests to represent Israel in God’s presence (Heb. 7:25-28; 9:10-12, 24).
Lev. 11-15—Sanctification required of Israel to come near to God (Eph. 5:26; ,1 John 1:9; 3: 21-22).
Lev. 16— God’s program for the great day of Atonement (Isa. 53; Rom. 3:21-26; I Peter, 1:18, 19; 3:18; John 19:30; I Peter 2:24).
Lev. 17-22—The becoming life of Israel in love toward God and man (Rom. 12:1-3; 15:1-3; Phil. 2:4; Eph. 4:1-3; II Tim. 2:21).
Lev. 23—God’s program for Israel’s worship of Him (I Cor. 5:7, 8; Eph. 2:5, 6; Col. 3:1, 2; I Peter 2:9; Rev. 4:10, 11; Isa. 9:6, 7).
Lev. 24-27—Rest and peace for accepted Israel (Eph. 1:3-14; Col. 1:9-12).

Numbers—Hebrew name—“In the wilderness” (Num. 1:1).
—God’s ways with Israel in the wilderness.
Purpose—To teach us God’s ways and purpose in the trials of our faith (I Cor. 10: 1-13; I Peter 1: 7; Prov. 17: 3).
Num. 1:1 to 10:10—Preparation for Israel’s journey toward Canaan (Rom. 8:16, 37-39; I John 5:13; Heb. 2:10; Eph. 6:10-18).
Num. 10:11 to 12— Israel’s journey from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea (Deut. 1:2; Heb. 4:9, 10; 12:1, 2).
Num. 13 to 20: 13—Kadesh-barnea to Kadesh-barnea, a circle of thirty-one burial grounds (Rom. 7; 7-24; Rom. 14: 23; I John 2: 28).
Num. 20: 14 to 25—Kadesh-barnea to plains of Moab (Eph. 6:16; Heb. 2: 14; Matt. 7: 13, 14).
Num. 26 to 36—Preparation for entering Canaan (Heb. 4: 16; 6: 17-20; 10: 19, 20).

Deuteronomy—Hebrew name—“These are the words” (Deut. 1:1).
—Review of God’s ways with Israel in the wilderness (Chs. 1 to 11), precepts to guide them in the land (Chs. 12 to 27), and prophecy concerning their future (Chs. 28 to 34).
Purpose—To help us to learn how our Lord works all things together for our good, even though we often doubt His precious promises, to reveal principles to guide into the enjoyment of our blessings in Christ, and to give us hope for the future (I Peter 1: 7; Eph. 1:17-21; II Cor. 3:18; Rom. 8: 28-39; I Thess: 6: 24; Phil. 1: 6).



—Israel’s entrance into, conquest of, and division of the land of Canaan for their inheritance (Josh. 1-5, 6-12, 13-24).
Purpose—To illustrate for us typically how Jesus, our Joshua, leads us into the place of blessing, the heavenlies, h6W He gives US victory over all the principalities and powers there, and how He causes us to enjoy our blessings in Him (Eph. 1: 21;
6:10-18; 3:16).
Josh. 1-5—Entrance into the promised land by the “Captain of our salvation” going before us “three days” (Heb. 2:10; Eph. 2:5, 6; Rom. 4:25).
Josh. 6-12—Conquest of the land, our place of blessing, by the power of our Captain who has “spoiled principalities and powers” (Col. 2:15; Eph. 6:10; 3:16; Rom. 8:37).
Josh. 13-24—Division of the land, our blessings in Christ, for our possession and enjoyment (Josh. 1:3; Eph. 1:3-14, “chosen,” “adopted,” “accepted,” “redeemed,” “enlightened,” “enriched,” and “sealed,” Heb. 11:1, 33).

—Failure of Israel to possess the promised land, and God’s faithfulness _ in grace raising up judges, through whom He gave them victory over their enemies (Judges 1 to 3:4; 3:5 to 16:31; 17:21).
Purpose—To teach us the cause and results of failure, to enter into the realization of our blessings in Christ, and reveal the grace of God that forgives, restores and encourages us to press toward the goal (Eph. 1: 3; I John 1: 9; Ps. 23: 3; Phil. 3:14).
Judges 1 to 3: 4—Israel’s failure to possess their land gave the enemies in the land possession of them (Eph. 5: 1-11; Col. 3: 1-11; Ps. 84: 7; II Cor. 12: 9, 10; Heb. 2: 18).
Judges 3: 5 to 16: 31—Seven periods of captivity and oppression of Israel by their enemies brought seven deliverances, when they cried to God (Ps. 72: 12; 68: 19, 20; Phil. 4: 13; I John 5: 4; Rom. 8: 13; I Cor. 9: 25-27).
Judges 17-21—Overcome by their enemies, Israel became lawless, “every man doing what was right in his own eyes” (Prov. 16:25, 32; II Tim. 4:3, 4; Jas. 1:22-25; Rev. 3:8).

—God’s dealings with the household of Elimelech in the time of the Judges.
Purpose—To reveal to us typically God’s dealings in grace with Israel, typified by Naomi, and with the Church, typified by Ruth. The “nearer” kinsman is a type of the law, which could not redeem Israel or the Church, and Boaz is a type of Christ, the “near” kinsman having the right, power and desire to redeem both Israel and the Church (Rom. 3:20; 4:15; Luke 19:10; II Cor. 8:9; Eph. 5:2).
Ruth 1—Naomi’s and Ruth’s decisions brought blessing to both—Israel restored and Gentiles blessed, but now the Church is made a blessing to bereft Israel (Rom. 11: 5, 11-14; 1: 16, 17).
Ruth 2—Meeting Boaz—“We love God because He first loved” us (I John 4:19; Rom. 5:8; Phil. 4:19).
Ruth 3—Rest at the feet of Boaz (Heb. 4: 9, 10; Matt. 11: 29, 30).
Ruth 4—Union with Boaz (Rom. 7: 4; Eph. 5; 25-32).

I Samuel
—God’s dealings with Israel through Samuel as prophet, priest, and judge, and through Saul and David as kings, to bless and make Israel a blessing (Gen. 22:17).
Purpose—To picture to us typically God’s dealings with us through Christ as Prophet, Priest, Judge, and King, in order to help us to know our Lord and to live to make Him known (Deut. 18: 18; Ps. 110:4; Heb. 7:21, 22; John 5:22, 27; I Tim. 1: 17; II Peter 3: 18).
I Sam. 1-8—God’s blessing upon Israel through Samuel—Christ revealing the Father, offering Himself in priestly sacrifice, overliving to make intercession, and judging His people by His word (John 17:6-8; Heb. 9:12; 10:10-12; 7:25; John 12: 48).
I Sam. 9-15—Saul, the people’s king, failing, and rejected of God; type of Antichrist (II Thess. 2: 4; Isa. 14: 12-14).
I Sam. 16-31—David, God’s king, chosen, anointed, tested, envied, and exiled; type of His Son Jesus Christ (Matt. 1: 1; Ps. 2: 6; Isa. 9:6, 7; Luke 1:32, 33; Isa. 61:1; Luke 4:18-22; Matt. 3:16: 4:1-11; 27:18; 21:38).

II Samuel
—God’s sovereign grace toward Israel through David, His king, who obeyed Him in his official acts.
Purpose—To foreshadow the gracious victory and overflowing blessing which is for every believer who enthrones Christ as Lord (I Peter 3: 15 R. V.; Eph. 6:’•10; Rom. 12: 1, 2); and to picture Christ’s rule of righteousness in the age to come (Isa. 11: 1-9; 32:1, 17).
II Sam. 1-10—David subduing all the enemies of Israel, placing the Ark in his capitol, and showing “the kindness of God”—Christ giving victory, ruling in our hearts, and loving others through us (Rom. 6: 11, 13; 8: 13; II Cor. 5: 14, 1, 5).
II Sam. 11-21—David overcome by Satan, forgiven, and restored by “grace reigning through righteousness” (Rom. 5:21; I John 1:9).
II Sam. 22-24—Christ the true King praised, predicted, and place prepared for His rule (Ps. 23).

I Kings
—God’s grace and glory manifest unto and through Israel, from time of Solomon until Elijah, until the kings despised His grace and dragged His glory into the dust by their sins.
Purpose—To reveal typically God’s thought concerning the Kingdom of Israel under the reign of David’s Son, the One greater than Solomon, and also to illustrate to us God’s unchangeable purpose and grace in Christ, in spite of sad failure to enjoy our blessings in Him (Ps. 89:3, 4, 34-37; Isa. 9:6, 7; Matt. 12:42; Heb. 6:12-20; I Cor. 16:68; Rev. 3:20, 21).
I Kings 1-11—The eternal glory of the rule of Sun of Righteousness, compared with the dim candle light of Solomon’s reign, pictures the glory for us, as kings’ to enjoy with Christ (Mal. 4:2; Hab. 2:14; Rom. 8:17; Rev. 1:6,6; 6:9, 10; 3:21; Matt. 25:20, 21; John 17:22, 24).
I Kings 12-16—Division and decline of the kingdom—a divided heart can not enjoy the fullness of the Lord’s blessing (Matt. 6:22; Col. 1:18; 3:1-11; II Cor. 6: 14 to 7:1).
I Kings 17-22—God’s gracious effort, through Elijah, to restore northern Israel to fellowship with Him—those who wholly follow the Lord, like Elijah, may be used to restore many to fellowship (Eph. 6:18; Gal. 6:1).

II Kings
Subject—God’s dealings with Northern Israel and Judah in grace and righteousness, finally giving them up to judgment because they refused His grace (II Kings 17:18-23; Hosea 11:7, 8).
Purpose—To teach us typically the cause and results of the apostasy, the falling away from faith in God of the professing church (I Tim. 4:1-3; II Tim. 3:1-7; II Thess. 2:11, 12; Heb. 4:9-11).
II Kings 1-13—Testimony of God’s righteousness and grace to backsliding Israel and Judah, through the ministry of Elijah and Elisha—a “light in a dark place, where unto we do well to take heed in our hearts” (II Peter 1:19; Isa. 61: 1-3; II Cor. 4: 6).
II Kings 14-17—Northern Israel carried into captivity by the Assyrians, because they turned from God to idols—turning from Christ to the “god of this world” results in captivity to Satan (II Cor. 4:4; Eph. 6:12; I John 2:16; Col. 3:1-3). II Kings 18-26—God’s great mercy and grace neglected and rejected by Judah, resulting in the Babylonian captivity—mercy and grace neglected or rejected leaves nothing but God’s wrath (John 3:36; Heb. 2:3).

I Chronicles
—God’s mercy and grace toward men as His co-rulers, from Adam to David, especially toward Israel through David. Kings record God dealing with Israel from the throne, but Chronicles from the sanctuary (I Sam. 13:14; Ex. 26:8).
Purpose—To reveal God’s marvelous grace foreshadowing the preparation of His Son, who is preparing a building, to be “fitly framed together,” for a habitation of God in the Spirit (Rom. 1: 3; 9: 6; Zech. 6: 12, 13; Eph. 2: 19-22).
I Chron. 1-9—Record of God’s guarding the lineage of Christ from Adam to David—just so He watches over His “incorruptible seed” to beget kings after His own heart who will rule with Christ (I Peter 1:23; Jer. 1:12 R. V.; Isa. 66:11).
I Chron. 10-16—When David was enthroned. He put the Ark—God’s throne in Jerusalem, His capitol in Israel—such are kings who enthrone Christ in their hearts as Lord (I Peter 3:16; Rom. 12: 1, 2; I Cor. 6: 19, 20).
I Chron. 22-27—Preparation for building the Temple and for the ministries therein—humility, delight in God’s will, prepares for Christ’s indwelling and ministry in us by His Spirit (Matt. 11:29, 30; Ps. 40: 7,8; John 7: 17; Phil. 2: 13; Isa. 67: 16).
I Chron. 28-29—The Spirit given pattern of God’s house to be built by David’s son—will be fulfilled by his greater Son, his Lord, who began a good work in us and will perfect it (Ezek. 40-46; Zech. 6: 12; Rev. 21:9-23; Phil. 1:6; Rom. 8:29).

II Chronicles
—God’s gracious and righteous dealings with the rule of David’s house from the building of the Temple by Solomon until it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar (Ps. 77:13; I Sam. 7: 14).
Purpose—To teach us that our Lord is just as faithful in chastening as in blessing His children (Rom. 8: 28; Heb. 10: 23; 12: 6-13). His love makes His holiness merciful, and His holiness makes His love unchangeable.
II Chron. 1-20—Causes of the failure of the rule of David’s house introduced by the wisest king who ever ruled among men—the reign of the King in whom are “hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” will never fail (I Kings 3: 12; II Chron. 9:23; I Kings 11:1-8; Col. 2:3; Ps. 89:19; 8:4-6; Heb. 2:6-9; I Cor. 15: 26-28).
II Chron. 21-36—The light in David’s house sustained by the “Light of the world,” though for a “small moment” hidden—the Lord will perfect that which concerneth us, though we may not always see His face (II Chron. 21:17; Isa. 64: 7, 8; 69:2; Ps. 138:8).

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By W. W. RUGH, Associate Dean, Bible Institute of Pennsylvania
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